赵里

姓名: 赵里
性别: 男
现任职称(职务):北京大学讲席教授
研究方向及领域:地震学,地球动力学
科研成果:
一、 理论地震学
    地球的自由振荡(normal modes)及其与地震行波(seismic waves)之间的二像性(duality)。自由振荡与地震波之间的关联同量子力学中的波粒二象性一样,是对同一物理现象(光或地震波)的两种不同的解释。但地震学过去一直没有建立一个系统的理论来解释自由振荡与地震波之间的关系,仅有在零星的文章中讨论简单的情形(如仅讨论SH波或均匀模型)。本人在博士期间所发表的四篇文章Zhao & Dahlen (1993; 1995a,b; 1996)首次在理论上完整建立了真实地球结构中自由振荡与地震波之间的等价关系(mode-ray duality)。
    在理论地震学方向的另一个主要成果是最早发展有限频率地震波(也称为全波)成像理论(finite-frequency tomography FFT or full-wave inversion FWI)的研究。在1990年代世界上许多从事地震波射线走时成像的研究小组几乎同一时期发表了一系列高质量的并且互相支持的全球模型,极大地提高了人们对地球动力学特别是俯冲消减带几何形状与分布的认识。但是同时人们也认识到射线走时成像方法已经使用到极致,在已有的台站分布条件下结构成像在分辨度上的大幅进步必须依赖新的理论方法。本人在麻省理工学院的工作Zhao et al. (2000)与普林斯顿大学小组的Dahlen et al. (2000)同时提出了有限频率地震波结构敏感度函数的理论与计算方法,并证实有限频率地震波走时对介质波速的敏感度函数具有悖于常理的所谓香蕉-甜甜圈(banana-doughnut)特征,即影响有限频率地震波走时的结构不是地震波射线上的速度扰动,而是射线周围区域的波速变化。值得一提的是,普林斯顿大学小组的方法采用射线近似理论,仅适用高频的几何射线。而我们则是使用自由振荡叠加的全波理论,其结果适用于所有频率以及任何地震波,因此更具有普遍适用性。
    有限频率或全波层析成像方法因为舍弃了高频射线近似,在计算上需要更长的时间和存储空间,因此在提出后曾经饱受争议。但在18年后的今天,随着高效能计算(high-performance computing, HPC)的普及,该方法已经被越来越多的研究者所采纳,逐渐成为地震波结构成像研究的主流,几乎所有的地震波成像研究,即使不采用全波方法,也都必须考虑有限频率效应。
二、 计算地震学
    理论地震图的计算、地球自由振荡本征频率与本征函数的计算、以及有限频率地震波成像中地震波对地球结构参数偏导数的计算。主要成果在两个方面:(一)为实现在三维地球模型中反演速度结构与震源破裂过程,在Zhao et al. (2005)中首次提出基于有限差分法的计算三维模型中地震波走时与振幅对速度结构敏感度函数的算法,使得以三维模型为参考模型的层析成像成为可能。另外在 Zhao et al. (2006)中提出应变格林张量 (Strain Green Tensor, SGT)的概念,利用地震波动方程格林函数所具有的源与观测点之间的互易性(source-receiver reciprocity),通过建立应变格林张量库(SGT database),来提高三维模型中精确理论地震图的计算效率,以实现在三维模型中震源破裂过程的反演。(二)在Zhao & Chevrot (2011a,b)中提出基于自由振荡叠加的普遍算法,实现计算从地震波形记录所得到的各种观测数据(如走时、振幅或剪切波分裂)对所有地球介质参数(如波速、各向异性或衰减)的敏感度函数,从而可以利用任何地震波观测来反演地球模型中的任何参数。
三、 地球内部结构的多重尺度层析成像
    与法国学者Chevrot博士合作并指导学生将有限频率地震波理论与基于小波变换的多重尺度(multiscale)层析成像方法结合,而发展成为一种全新的全波多尺度层析成像方法。与Chevrot博士合作的对非洲南部地区Kaapvaal克拉通的剪切波三维速度结构研究结果Chevrot & Zhao (2007)是最早的有限频率多尺度三维层析成像工作。指导的博士生也对南加州地区岩石圈及上部地幔三维各向异性结构进行了有限频多尺度成像 Lin, Zhao & Hung (2014),该结果也是全球目前唯一的三维各向异性有限频多尺度全波成像结果,对增进我们理解该地区的构造现状及动力学演化有很大帮助。另一名硕士生的工作Tang, Zhao & Hung (2015)也是目前唯一的考虑有限频率效应并基于Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MH-MCMC)非线性贝叶斯(Bayesian)方法反演得到的外核顶部一维速度结构,为外核顶部轻物质的存在与分布以及内、外核的演化提供了最直接的地震学证据。
    此外,也利用基于有限差分法的非线性迭代层析成像方法对南加州地区三维速度结构进行全波成像,所发表的结果Chen, Zhao & Jordan (2007)是当时该地区分辨度最高并且理论波形与观测波形最为吻合的模型,特别是我们的速度模型对洛杉矶盆地的三维几何形状给出了可靠的描述,对提高南加州地区强地面运动估计的可靠性以及地震风险评估有直接的重要价值。
四、 地震震源破裂过程反演
    在地震学研究上的另一个方向是震源的反演,包括点震源震源机制的快速全自动反演以及中、大规模地震的震源破裂过程在三维地球模型中的迅速反演。在点震源方面,本人与美国圣路易斯大学(Saint Louis University)朱露培教授合作,将他所发表的gCAP方法自动化,并与台湾中央气象局的地震预警系统连接,使得在台湾地区发生地震时能够全自动地在3-5分钟内确定地震的震源机制(包括地震的质心深度和规模),并且公布在互联网上。同时,利用已经建立的台湾地区三维应变格林张量库(SGT database),还可以在公布震源机制解的同时给出在三维模型中得到的地面运动的速度与加速度峰值图(PGV/PGA map)及地表震动影象(Shake Movie)。本人的博士生所发表的结果Hsieh, Zhao & Ma (2014)甚至能够判断地震的实际断层面,以避免点震源的两个共轭面中实际发震面的不确定性。在台湾地区发生规模3级以上的地震时,该系统均能给出可靠的结果,是目前世界上投入运行的同类系统中速度和表现最佳的系统之一。
    在过去几年,与美国加州大学圣芭芭拉分校(UC Santa Barbara)的纪晨教授合作将他的震源破裂过程反演方法与本人所发展的应变格林张量库(SGT database)方法结合,发展出能够有效地在三维模型中反演震源破裂过程的方法。Hsieh, Zhao, Ji & Ma (2016)能够有效地利用宽频(短周期达3秒)波形在三维模型中反演震源破裂过程的方法,在全球规模6级以上地震发生后1-2小时内可以初步确定可靠的震源错动量的时空分布。目前我们正在将该方法自动化,使全球中、大规模地震后震源破裂过程的反演实现全自动实时化。
五、 地震灾害分析与评估
    在计算地震学应用方面还利用波动方程在复杂结构模型中的数值解对地震造成的强地面运动做接近实际的估计,提高地震灾害评估(seismic hazard assessment, SHA)的可靠性,从而在地震尚无法预报的当前为地震减灾提供有效的帮助。在美国南加州大学工作期间参与南加州地震中心(Southern California Earthquake Center, SCEC)的CyberShake计划,是其中地震波模拟计算部分的主持人。该计划的目标是建立一个计算平台,进行基于波动物理模拟的地震灾害评估(physics-based SHA, PSHA)。建立接收点应变格林张量(receiver-side SGT, RSGT)库的方法使地震灾害评估中对每一评估地点所需要数十万次三维数值模拟能够以一次模拟实现(见Maechling, Deelman, Zhao et al., 2007)。该计算平台(https://scec.usc.edu/scecpedia/CyberShake)是目前世界上唯一能够从事PSHA的实用工具,并已用于产生新一代的加州地震灾害图(seismic hazard map,见Graves et al., 2010)。
PUBLICATIONS
1. 1992 Zhao, L., Li, Z.-J. and Zheng, S.-H. Focal mechanism of the October 19, 1989, Datong, China, earthquake, Acta Seismologica Sinica, 5(4), 887-890.
2. 1993 Zhao, L. and Dahlen, F. A. Asymptotic eigenfrequencies of the Earth's normal modes, Geophys. J. Int., 115, 729-758.
3. 1995 Zhao, L. and Dahlen, F. A. Asymptotic normal modes of the Earth-II. Eigenfunctions, Geophys. J. Int., 121, 585-626.
4. 1995 Zhao, L. and Dahlen, F. A. Asymptotic normal modes of the Earth-III. Fréchet kernel and group velocity, Geophys. J. Int., 122, 299-325.
5. 1996 Zhao, L. and Dahlen, F. A. Mode-sum to ray-sum transformation in a spherical and an aspherical Earth, Geophys. J. Int., 126, 389-412.
6. 1998 Zhao, L. and Jordan, T. H. Sensitivity of frequency-dependent traveltimes to laterally heterogeneous, anisotropic Earth structure, Geophys. J. Int., 133, 683-704.
7. 1998 Katzman, R., Zhao, L. and Jordan, T. H. High-resolution, two-dimensional vertical tomography of the central Pacific mantle using ScS reverberations and frequency-dependent travel times, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9887-9909.
8. 2000 Zhao, L., Jordan, T. H. and Chapman, C. H. Three-dimensional Fréchet differential kernels for seismic delay times, Geophys. J. Int., 141, 558-576.
9. 2000 McGuire, J.J., Zhao, L. and Jordan, T. H. Rupture dimensions of the 1998 Antarctic earthquake from low-frequency waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2305-2308.
10. 2001 McGuire, J.J., Zhao, L. and Jordan, T. H. Teleseismic inversion for the second-degree moments of earthquake space-time distributions, Geophys. J. Int., 145, 661-678.
11. 2002 McGuire, J.J., Zhao, L. and Jordan, T. H. Predominance of unilateral rupture for a global catalog of large earthquakes, Bull. Seismo. Soc. Am., 92, 3309-3317, 2002.
12. 2003 Zhao, L. and Chevrot, S. SS-wave sensitivity to upper mantle structure: Implications for the mapping of transition zone discontinuity topographies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(11), 1590, doi:10.1029/2003GL017223.
13. 2005 Chen, P., Jordan, T. H. and Zhao, L. Finite moment tensor of the 3 September, 2002, Yorba Linda earthquake, Bull. Seismo. Soc. Am., 95, 1170-1180.
14. 2005 Zhao, L., Jordan, T. H., Olsen, K. B. & Chen, P. Fréchet kernels for imaging regional Earth structure based on three-dimensional reference models, Bull. Seismo. Soc. Am., 95, 2066-2080.
15. 2005 Wu, Y.-M., Yen, H.-Y., Zhao, L., Huang, B.-S. and Liang, W.-T. Magnitude determination using initial P waves: A single station approach, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L05306, doi:10.1029/2005GL025395.
16. 2006 Zhao, L. and Jordan, T. H. Structural sensitivities of finite-frequency seismic waves: A full-wave approach, Geophys. J. Int., 165, 981-990.
17. 2006 Deelman, E., Callaghan, S., Field, E., Francoeur, H., Graves, R., Gupta, N., Gupta, V., Jordan, T. H., Kesselman, C., Maechling, P., Mehringer, J., Mehta, G., Okaya, D., Vahi, K., and Zhao, L. Managing large-scale workflow execution from resource provisioning to provenance tracking: The CyberShake example, e-Science Conference 2006, December 4-6, 2006, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Best Paper Award.
18. 2006 Zhao, L., Chen, P. and Jordan, T. H. Strain Green tensor, reciprocity, and their applications to seismic source and structure studies, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 96, 1753-1763, doi:10.1785/0120050253.
19. 2006 Wu, Y-.M. and Zhao, L. Magnitude estimation using the first three seconds P-wave amplitude in earthquake early warning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16312, doi:10.1029/2006GL026871.
20. 2007 Chevrot, S. and Zhao, L. Multiscale finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the Kaapvaal craton, Geophys. J. Int., 169, 201-215.
21. 2007 Chen, P., Jordan, T. H. and Zhao, L. Full three-dimensional tomography: a comparison between the scattering-integral and adjoint-wavefield methods, Geophys. J. Int., 170, 175-181.
22. 2007 Chen, P., Zhao, L. and Jordan, T. H. Full 3D tomography for the crustal structure of the Los Angeles region, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 97, 1094-1120, doi: 10.1785/0120060222.
23. 2007 Chang, C.-H., Wu, Y.-M., Zhao, L. and Wu, F.-T. Aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake: The first hour, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 97, 1245-1258.
24. 2007 Maechling, P., Deelman, E., Zhao, L., Graves, R., Mehta, G., Gupta, N., Mehringer, J., Kesselman, C., Callaghan, S., Okaya, D., Francoeur, H., Gupta, V., Cui, Y., Vahi, K., Jordan, T. H. and Field, E. SCEC CyberShake workflows-automating probabilistic seismic hazard analysis calculations, in Workflows for eScience: Scientific Workflows for Grids, Taylor, I. J., Deelman, E., Gannon, D. B., and Shields, M. (Eds.), Springer, 530p, ISBN: 978-1-84628-519-6.
25. 2007 Wu, Y.-M., Chang, C.-H., Zhao, L., Shyu, J. B. H., Chen, Y.-G., Sieh, K. and Avouac, J.-P. Seismic tomography of Taiwan: Improved constraints from a dense network of strong-motion stations, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B08312, doi:10.1029/2007JB004983.
26. 2007 Zhang, Z., Shen, Y. and Zhao, L. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels for head waves, Geophys. J. Int., 171, 847-856, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03575.x.
27. 2008 Wu, Y.-M., Chang, C.-H., Zhao, L., Teng, T.-L. and Nakamura, M. A comprehensive relocation of earthquakes in Taiwan from 1991 to 2005, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98, 1471-1481, doi: 10.1785/0120070166.
28. 2008 Wu, Y.-M., Zhao, L., Chang, C.-H. and Hsu, Y.-J. Focal mechanism determination in Taiwan by genetic algorithm, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98, 651-661.
29. 2008 Shen, Y., Zhang, Z. and Zhao, L. Component-dependent Fréchet sensitivity kernels and utility of three-component seismic records, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98, 2517-2525.
30. 2008 Wu, Y.-M., Chen, C.-C., Zhao, L. and Chang, C.-H. Seismicity characteristics before the 2003 Chengkung, Taiwan, earthquake, Tectonophysics, 457, 177-182.
31. 2008 Wu, Y.-M., Zhao, L., Chang, C.-H., Hsiao, N.-C., Chen, Y.-G. and Hsu, S.-K. Relocation of the 2006 Pingtung earthquake sequence and seismotectonics in southern Taiwan, Tectonophysics, 479, 19-27, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.001.
32. 2009 Zheng, Z., Zhao, L., Chen, Q.-F. and Zhou, S.-Y. Finite-source waveform modeling of moderate and small earthquakes: the 2006 Wen-An earthquake, Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 52, 976-982, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0001-5733.2009.04.014.
33. 2009 Hsiao, N.-C., Wu, Y.-M., Shin, T.-C., Zhao, L. and Teng, T.-L. Development of earthquake early warning system in Taiwan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L00B02.
34. 2009 Wu, Y.-M., Shyu, J. B. H., Chang, C.-H., Zhao, L., Nakamura, M. and Hsu, S.-K. Improved seismic tomography offshore northeastern Taiwan: Implications for subduction and collision processes between Taiwan and the southernmost Ryukyu, Geophys. J. Int., 178, 1042-1054, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04180.x.
35. 2010 Chao, W.-A., Wu, Y.-M. and Zhao, L. An automatic scheme for baseline correction of strong-motion records in coseismic deformation determination, J. Seismol., 14, 495-504.
36. 2010 Chen, P., Jordan, T. H. and Zhao, L. Resolving fault plane ambiguity for small earthquakes, Geophys. J. Int., 181, 493-501, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04515.x.
37. 2010 Yang, H.-Y., Zhao*, L. and Hung, S.-H. Synthetic seismograms by normal-mode summation: A new derivation and numerical examples, Geophys. J. Int., 183, 1613-1632.
38. 2010 Hsieh, J.-T., Wu, Y.-M., Zhao, L., Chao, W.-A. and Wu, C.-F. An examination of ?c-Pd earthquake early warning method using a strong-motion building array, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2009.12.015.
39. 2011 Hsiao, N.-C., Wu, Y.-M., Zhao, L., Chen, D.-Y., Huang, W.-T., Kuo, K.-H., Shin, T.-C. and Leu, P.-L. A new prototype system for earthquake early warning in Taiwan, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2010.01.008.
40. 2011 Lin, Y.-P., Zhao*, L. and Hung, S.-H. Assessment of tomography models of Taiwan using first-arrival times from the TAIGER active-source experiment, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 101, 866-880.
41. 2011 Zhao, L. and Chevrot, S. An efficient and flexible approach to the calculation of three-dimensional full-wave Fréchet kernels for seismic tomography: I-Theory, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 922-938.
42. 2011 Zhao, L. and Chevrot, S. An efficient and flexible approach to the calculation of three-dimensional full-wave Fréchet kernels for seismic tomography: II-Numerical results, Geophys. J. Int., 185, 939-954.
43. 2011 Chao, W.-A., Zhao, L. and Wu, Y.-M. Centroid fault-plane inversion in three-dimensional velocity structure using strong-motion records, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 101, 1330-1340.
44. 2012 Zhang, W., Shen, Y. and Zhao, L. Three-dimensional anisotropic seismic wave modelling in spherical coordinates by a collocated-grid finite-difference method, Geophys. J. Int., 188, 1359-1381.
45. 2012 Fuji, N., Chevrot, S., Zhao, L., Geller, R. J. and Kawai, K. Finite-frequency structural sensitivities of short-period compressional body waves, Geophys. J. Int., 190, 522-540.
46. 2012 Wu, W.-N., Zhao*, L. and Wu, Y.-M. Empirical Relationships between Aftershock Zone Dimensions and Moment Magnitudes for Plate Boundary Earthquakes in Taiwan, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 103, 424-436, doi: 10.1785/0120120173.
47. 2013 Wu, W.-N. and Zhao, L. Delineating seismogenic structures by a revised best estimate method: application to the Taiwan orogenic belt, J. Seism., 17, 545-556.
48. 2013 Chao, W.-A., Zhao, L., Wu, Y.-M. and Lee, S.-J. Imaging source slip distribution by the back-projection of P-wave amplitudes from strong-motion records: A case study for the 2010 Jiasian, Taiwan, earthquake, Geophys. J. Int., 193, 1713-1725.
49. 2013 Zhao, L., Luo, Y., Liu, T.-Y. and Luo, Y.-J. Earthquake focal mechanisms in Yunnan and their inference on regional stress field, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 103, 2498-2507.
50. 2013 Chen, C.-H., Chao, W.-A., Wu, Y.-M., Zhao, L., Chen, Y.-G., Ho, W.-Y., Lin, T.-L., Kuo, K.-H. and Chang, J.-M. A seismological study of landquakes using a real-time broadband seismic network, Geophys. J. Int., 194, 885-898.
51. 2013 Li, S., Chen, Q., Zhao, L., Zhu, L., Gao, J., Li, M., Liu, G. and Wang, B. Anomalous focal mechanism of the May 2011 Mw5.7 deep earthquake in Northeastern China: regional waveform inversion and possible mechanism, Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 56, 2959-2970, doi: 10.6038/cjg20130910.
52. 2014 Lin, Y.-P., Zhao*, L. and Hung, S.-H. Full-wave effects on shear-wave splitting, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 799-804, doi: 10.1002/2013GL058742.
53. 2014 Legendre, C., Deschamps, F., Zhao, L., Lebedev, S., and Chen, Q.-f. Anisotropic Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps of eastern China, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 4802-4820.
54. 2014 Hsieh, M.-C., Zhao*, L. and Ma, K.-F. Efficient waveform inversion for average earthquake rupture in three-dimensional structures, Geophys. J. Int., 198, 1279-1292.
55. 2014 Legendre, C., Chen, Q.-f. and Zhao, L. Lithospheric structure beneath the East China Sea revealed by Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, J. Asian Earth Sci., 96, 213-225.
56. 2014 Chong, J., Ni, S. and Zhao, L. Joint inversion of crustal structure with the Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion and the ZH ratio, PAGEOPH, 171, 1-16.
57. 2014 Lin, Y.-P., Zhao*, L. and Hung, S.-H. Full-wave multiscale anisotropy tomography in Southern California, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8809-8817, doi: 10.1002/2014GL061855.
58. 2015 Chao, W.-A., Wu, Y.-M., Zhao, L., Tsai, V. and Chen, C.-H. Seismologically determined bedload flux during the typhoon season, Sci. Rep. 5, 8261.
59. 2015 Legendre, C., Zhao, L., Huang, B.-S., and Huang, W.-G. Anisotropic Rayleigh-wave phase velocities beneath northern Vietnam, Earth, Planets Space, doi: 10.1186/s40623-015-0193-3.
60. 2015 Luo, Y., Zhao, L., Zeng, X. F. and Gao, Y. Focal mechanisms of the Lushan earthquake sequence and spatial variation of the stress field, Sci. China: Earth Sci., 58 1-11.
61. 2015 Tang, V., Zhao*, L., and Hung, S.-H. Seismological evidence for a non-monotonic velocity gradient in the topmost outer core, Sci. Rep., 5, 8613, doi: 10.1038/srep08613.
62. 2015 Legendre, C., Zhao, L., and Chen, Q.-f. Upper-mantle shear-wave structure under East and Southeast Asia from Automated Multimode Inversion of Waveforms, Geophys. J. Int., 203, 707-719.
63. 2015 Yu, H., Zhao, L., Liu, Y., Ning, J., Chen, Q.-f., and Lin, J. Stress adjustment revealed by seismicity and earthquake focal mechanisms in northeast China before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Tectonophysics, doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2015.10.009.
64. 2015 Legendre, C., Deschamps, F., Zhao, L., and Chen, Q.-f. Rayleigh-wave dispersion reveals crust-mantle decoupling beneath eastern Tibet, Sci. Rep., 5, 16644, doi: 10.1038/srep16644.
65. 2016 Singh, A. P., Zhao, L., Kumar, S., and Mishra, S. Inversions for focal mechanisms and regional stress in the Kachchh Rift Basin, western India: Tectonic implications, J. Asian Earth Sci., 117, 269-283.
66. 2016 Chao, W.-A., Zhao, L., Chen, S.-C., Wu, Y.-M., Chen, C.-H., and Huang, H.-H. Seismology-based early identification of dam-formation landquake events, Sci. Rep., 6, 19259, doi: 10.1038/srep19259.
67. 2016 Hsieh, M.-C., Zhao*, L., Ji, C., and Ma, K.-F. Efficient inversions for earthquake slip distributions in three-dimensional structures, Seismol. Res. Lett., 87(6), 1342-1354, doi: 10.1785/0220160050.
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CITATION REPORT (as of February 2018)
Total citation: 1689 (1511 excluding self-citation)
Average citations per publication: 24.84
H-index: 22